Using the library, unit resources, and the Internet, select

Using the library, unit resources, and the Internet, select a curriculum approach for further research. Try to select an approach that matches your area of expertise or interest. For your selected curriculum approach, answer the following questions in an APA-formatted paper: How is this approach similar or different from your personal approach to the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of curriculum? How effective would this approach be as a guide to curriculum within your current or anticipated curriculum area (K–12, higher education, corporate training, or military)? What is the value of this theory for educators or trainers who are designing, implementing, or evaluating curriculum today? Your research must include sources outside of the textbook. Be sure to use APA manuscript format for your submission. Cooperative learning: This assists small groups work as efficiently as possible together. Collaborative learning: Is a joint effort by teachers and students to explore the course materials. This is a shift from a teacher-centered to student-centered approach. The teacher acts as a facilitator or coach. Socially shared cognition theory: Proponents believe that people learn from each other by observing, imitating, and modeling. This theory is often referred to as the bridge between the behaviorist and cognitivist paradigms, and it includes attention, memory, and motivation. Discovery learning: This theory is finding out for oneself through problem-solving dilemmas. This method is more meaningful to the individual than information gained from a presentation or other typical methods. Engagement theory: This theory has commonalities with several of the other theories. The learner must be meaningfully engaged and is both self-directed and collaborative in nature. Engagement theory was originally designed to be used with technology. Engagement theory stresses creativity, decision making, and reasoning. Problem-based learning: This theory uses real-world problems and situations for students to resolve. These open-ended problems have no right answer, so the instructor is monitoring the thinking process used. As you can see, there is some overlap among these theories.… . J. Posner (1998) made one of the attempts at organizing curriculum theories by various approaches. He divided the approaches into four major categories: procedural, descriptive, conceptual, and critical. The procedural approach focused on the steps to follow when developing a curriculum. The descriptive approach emphasized what the planners should actually do in a descriptive format. The conceptual approach was mostly concerned with how the different elements of a curriculum are related to each other. The critical approach organized a wide variety of different curriculums, each of which served the interests of a particular group of learners. These were the most diverse curriculums to place in a group.The book Curriculum Development discusses four different approaches: behavioral, managerial, systems, and humanistic (Bilbao, Lucido, Iringan, & Javier, 2008). The main goal of the behavioral approach was to achieve efficiency. It will seem very appropriate to most educators because it is based on setting goals and objectives and then putting together the content based on those goals and objectives. One of the main elements of this plan is the need to measure the success of learning outcomes based on a behavioral change.The managerial approach was designed with the view of the principal as both the curriculum leader and the general manager of the school. In this approach, the principal is more concerned with setting the direction of change and innovation while planning and organizing the curriculum and is less concerned with the content.The systems approach emphasizes how different parts of the school or district relate to each other. It shows the relationships between personnel and how decisions are made. The five elements of curriculum (administration, counseling, curriculum, instruction, and evaluation) are all of equal importance.Finally, the humanistic approach is a child-centered movement. It considers the planned curriculum and the hidden curriculum. It considers the whole child and that the development of the individual is of prime importance in the curriculum.The technical or scientific approach uses instruments and empirical methods to design a blueprint of elements, sequenced procedures, and quality control measures to lead to success in implementation.All of these approaches are meant to accomplish the same task: design and develop a successful curriculum that assists students in the mastery of the needed knowledge and skills the program is set up to teach. Article 1Bell, S., Galilea, P, & Tolouei, R. (2010). Student experience of a scenario-centered curriculum. European Journal of Engineering Education,35(3), 235–245.Library Database: Academic Search PremierArticle 2Byrne, J., Downey, C., & Souza, A. (2013). Teaching and learning in acompetence-based curriculum: The case of four secondary schools inEngland. Curriculum Journal, 24(3), 351–368.Library Database: ERICArticle 3Rafferty, P. (2011). The confluence of curriculum theory and the phenomenological forthe critical pedagogue. Scholar-Practitioner Quarterly, 5(4), 385–393.Library Database: ERICArticle 4Thompson, K. V., Cooke, T. J., Fagan, W. F., Gulikc, D., Levy, D., Nelson, K., . . . Presson, J.(2013). Infusing quantitative approaches throughout the biological sciencescurriculum. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science &Technology. 44(6), 817–833.Library Database: Education Research CompleteArticle 5Weiland, I. S., & Morrison, J. A. (2013). The integration of environmentaleducation into two elementary pre service science methods courses: Acontent-based and method-based approach. Journal of Science When learning about curriculum theories and approaches, it is important to remember that these are all people’s opinions and thoughts. None of them are proven facts. Therefore, it is important to approach these discussions and readings in an analytical and evaluative way and not just accept what is read as correct.ReferencesBilbao, P. P., Lucido, P. I., Iringan, T. C., & Javier, R. B. (2008). Curriculum development. Quebec, Canada: Lorimer Publications.Posner, G. J. (1998). Models of curriculum planning. In L. E. Beyer & M. W. Apple (Eds.), The curriculum: Problems, politics, and possibilities (2nd ed., pp. 79–100). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

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